Function of Ecosystem

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Function of Ecosystem

In the modern era of science, the most addressed problems are pollution, climate change and global warming. The air, water and noise pollution in India is at the extreme and devastating state. These problems of pollution have culminated the human life more than any other issue, like terrorism, accident, natural disaster, hunger or anything else.
Function of Ecosystem
The pollution is a silent killer which has killed the highest number human in India. The earth has self-replenishing ability that resist against the disruptions. The self-replenishing ability is due to the cyclic process naturally governing phenomenon like in the water cycle, the water evaporates from rivers and sea, the forest transpires the water to ambient environment and after condensation return to earth in form of rain. Likewise, in the nutrient cycling processes, after decay and decomposition of body of living beings, the nutrients are return back to soil and restore it for continuous supply of nutrients to green plants for their growth and development.
The self-replenishing property of earth system has tremendous potential for its sustenance through generating the resource continuously. The earth ecosystem is sufficient to tackle the hunger and other consumptions, ultimately sufficient to human need. But self-replenishing property or power will fail to gratify the human greed. As the need may be utilize through the judicious use of natural resources and greed will disrupt the cycle first and discontinue the supply sustainably. e.g., the forest has the tremendous potential to utilize the elevated CO2 liberated naturally to the atmosphere. But it unable to cope up the CO2, as in one hand the urbanization has deteriorated, damaged and deforested the forest and on the other hand the urbanization has introduced the exceeding level of CO2, to the environment. Ultimately it derailed the cyclic processes and debars the self-replenishing property of ecosystem on earth.

Biogeochemical cycles (C, N, P & S)

In biogeochemical cycles, the carbon cycle is most studied and has unlimited significance in field of ecology and environment. Carbon cycle is directly linked with photosynthesis, climate change, global warming, carbon sequestration and deforestation research. Other applied sciences like agriculture, forestry, horticulture etc. are directly and indirectly linked with carbon cycle.
Figure1: The ecological significance of photosynthesis in reference to Carbon Cycle

Carbon farming and carbon trading is the emerging field in this reference that need to boost up for redressing of the current global problems. The importance and prospects of Carbon cycle in modern research is increasing in manifold. Therefore, a brief description of carbon cycle is displayed below.

Carbon cycle
Senescence of a leaf is a process to define the falling down of leaf after a completing the biological age. After senescence, the leaf starts to decay and decompose means started to release the nutrients accumulated in its tissues during the growth and development. The nutrients are retuned back to the soil through the process of leaf litter decomposition. For this reason, the leaf decomposition is considered as one of the crucial phenomena in biogeochemical cycles. The nutrients, initially absorbed from soil system through roots incorporated for the growth and development of plant by numerous vital activities and at the end the leaf senescence to earth.
The terrestrial ecosystems like forest enjoy this movement of nutrients from soil to plans and further from plants to soil continuously like a cyclic process. The cyclic movement of nutrients, from one phase to another phase is called as the biogeochemical cycle. The recycling back of nutrients to the soil system perpetuates the plants growth and development for ensuring the further consumption. Hence the nutrient cycling phenomenon contributing in the way of perpetuation the nutrient and soil organic matter by nutrients leaching, immobilization and net nutrient litter mineralization. The nutrient cycling and adding of soil organic carbon to soil system through the litter decomposition enhance the soil quality and buffering capacity by attracting the soil microbes. The soil microbes convert the unavailable form to the available form of soil nutrients to plant uptake. Thus, the soil system has a self-replenishing power of nutrients cycling for the continuous supply the plant nutrients in nature.

Nitrogen Cycle
The nitrogen (N) is required in high amount to plants / agricultural crops and supplied by the chemical fertilizer urea widely for the growth and development. The nitrogen is the most abundance nutrient available in atmosphere in elemental form. The elemental form of nitrogen has triple covalent bond that hard to break up thus it is not readily available to for its uptake by the plants. For breaking down this triple covalent bond high energy is required and some of the microbes have the potency to convert the elemental nitrogen into readily available forms.
Function of Ecosystem
Figure 2: The conversion of elemental nitrogen to readily available form of nitrogen

The microbial conversion takes place through the enzyme nitrogenase and makes it available to metabolize by the plants. These microbes are symbiotic leguminous and non-symbiotic or free-living soil. The excreta and urine wastes from human and animals are the main source of soil nitrogen. The cow dung, manure and FYM (farm yard manure) are applied the agricultural soil have nitrogen as major soil nutrients. Nitrogen is the one of the main constituents of chlorophyll and it also part of DNA. The prime role of nitrogen is to produce the protein and responsible for the vegetative growth of plant. As it is also the part of chlorophyll, the presence of adequate amount of nitrogen promotes the photosynthesis activity.

Phosphorus and Sulfur cycles
The presence of phosphorus is essentially needed for the strengthening the skeleton in human and animals. In plant phosphorus is responsible for the vigorous growth of stem against the lodging of crops and provides the high yields. The sulfur containing amino acids are essential nature nutrients and limiting factor for protein synthesis. The Coenzyme A regulates the synthesis of amino acids. The adequate amount of sulfur availability will promote the synthesis of Co-enzyme A.

Productivity and Energy Flow

All the nature gifted resources, contributions and services are considered as the ecosystem functioning. In general, the ecosystem functions are ecosystem services, energy flow, Nutrients Cycling and Productivity. However, the ecosystem functioning is ‘N’ number of activities at a same time including the vital activity of plant. For example, the photosynthesis process is an essential activity for plant existence and in turn it provides the oxygen to the ecosystem which has utmost importance for vital activity of other life on earth and ecosystem including human beings. The four sub category of ecosystem functions described in Fig 10.1. As we know the ecosystem is the interplay of interactions among biotic, abiotic components and their complexes. The ecosystem services (ES) are described in detail in previous unit (Unit 9.8.1).
The ES are provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting. The ultimate source of energy on earth is Sun and the green chlorophyllous vegetation is capable to convert the radiant energy to chemical energy with the help of dehydrogenase enzymes which flows unidirectional in ecosystem through food chains and food webs. The energy flowed is utilized to produce the plant biomass and productivity (production per unit of time). In an ecosystem, the productivity is studied in term of primary productivity (PP), net primary productivity (NPP) and gross primary productivity (GPP). Afterward the completing the biological age the plants and animals are dead and decay. During the decaying the plant and animal biomass release back the nutrients to the soil and helps in to the nutrient cycling. The nutrient cycling is the connecting end of the cycle in an ecosystem and ensures the flow of material biotic component to abiotic components. While, the flow of nutrients and water are required from the soil system to plants through absorbance are essentially required for the growth and development of plants.
Examples for ecosystem function is not only the services provided by a river, forest but functions like pollination in flowers with the help of pollinator insects; rain to an ecosystem or region; abstraction of micro-nutrients from soil; seed dispersal through waterways; ensuring the dew moisture to quench bird thirst; mixing of soil layers by earthworm through casting the Vermicast etc. also considered as ecosystem functions.
Function of Ecosystem
Figure3: A brief display of Ecosystem Functions

As we know, the sun is the prime and first source of energy, due to radiation activity the energy moves to earth system, where after transforming the radial energy supports the vital activity of life. The energy emitted from the Sun, due to the nuclear fission reaction. The flow of energy in an ecosystem is crucial as it is a heart of life in an ecosystem. The radiation energy moves to earth as an electromagnetic wave in form of energy pockets called quanta. The radiation energy moves from the Sun to earth abundantly, but a minute portion of this radiation energy is tapped for energizing the ecosystems on earth naturally.
The radiation energy is trapped through leaves green plants through the photosynthetic activity, afterward it called a chemical energy. The flow of energy (chemical energy) in an ecosystem is complex however it flows in uni-direction. It has very less efficiency, require huge energy to dissipate during transfer and that is why it flows in unidirectional pattern. As per the 10% rule, the energy sieved only 10% of one trophic level to next tropic level.
The almost 90 % of energy is dissipate to environment during the transfer. The sequential arrangement of organism in linear format to transfer the energy is called food chain and the stage where the energy level changes are called trophic level. The first trophic level is characterized by the green auto-tropic plants who harness the radiation energy through photosynthesis. The green plants are called a producer as they produce the chemical energy by using the radiation energy. Afterward the organisms in next trophic levels (trophic level second onward) are called hetero-trophs. The second trophic level is characterized by herbivores (herbs eaters) dependent on the first trophic level (chlorophyllous plants) for their energy through feeding the green plants. Further, the third trophic level is characterized by small carnivores who dependent on the herbivores for the food and energy. Then, the next trophic level is also carnivores but they depend on carnivores for their food and energy. Summarily, the organisms are arranged in order their food habits and formulate segmented system of unidirectional flow of energy (food resource) and each segment represents a trophic level and complete set of segments is a food chain. In nature, a number of food chains exist together and form a web like structure.
The assemblage of two or more than two food chains is called a food web. The flow of energy is through successive trophic levels only. Hence, it is considered as the unidirectional flow of energy in an ecosystem.

Information flow

Usually data reflects some numerical values but it is beyond the numerical values and may be in non-numerical or figure form too. The data mean gathering or collection of relevant facts, the meaning contained in facts is information and the conclusions drawn from the information is knowledge. Like other fields of science, Ecology is also deal with numerous data, information and of course a set of knowledge that flows or exchange in an entire environment. Information ecology emphasize on the interactions of environmental components trough interpretation of data, information and knowledge. The biotic component of environment influences the environment and being influenced by the environment. The ultimate aim of study about the interactions of environmental components is to provide the information facts and services. The information in ecology is dynamic and complex in nature as it is based on numerous interactions between living and nonliving beings.
As we know the ecosystem’s biotic and abiotic factors interact and influence to the each other and ultimately the outcome these interactions form the ecosystem. The natural phenomenon involves all the associated existing components due its connectedness together or as response of action (change in a factor) trigger the certain changes that further proceed the natural process to completion. This is the interconnected, interdepended and governs through the interactions. In nature, the interactions are the cluster of ‘n’ number of simple processes running in same piece of time and many of times even they overlap and reflect the natural interaction complex. The understanding of the interaction required the keen observation. To understand the complex ecosystem, the observation of single factor and associated activity need to study. As a case study, we will discuss the impact of soil water availability to plant and growth of insect larvae. Let us observer the addition of water through rain to a natural plant system. As the water availability ensure, the soil system will stimulate to optimize the soil nutrients and will boost up the plant growth. The plant growth helps to spouts more plant leaves that will cool down the ambient temperature of that particular area as the more leaves will helpful to conserve the soil moisture. Moreover, this event will enhance the relative humidity and ultimately create new microhabitats that optimize the growth of specific leaves eater larvae.
Now, it is important to note that if the moisture content is at optimum to plant it will proliferate the growth of green leafy plant. If the water content is exceeding the optimum condition it will attract the growth of the leaf eater larvae too. It will promote the growth of larvae that further the growth and development of the larvae will affect the plant growth due to its feeding activity. Thus, normally the addition of water to soil system boost the plant growth but it may also diminish the plant growth by infestation effects of insects. Now focus on the question, how the information flow to insect this the time to grow on this plant. In this phenomenon the exceeding water content is the action that triggers the reaction or the turning point to develop the insect larvae. If the water content is in control and only sufficient to plant growth only and the soil system is in dry condition instead of wet, humid condition the information or signal or stimulation will not carry forward for the growth of insect. Thus, the information flow in an ecosystem is the activity of stimulation or feedback mechanism. For monitoring the flow of information in an ecosystem, the ecosystem needs to be segmented in to pieces and the stimulation or signals are as appears in the adjoining segments will be considered as the flow of information. Thus, the information flow may be map out in a natural ecosystem. The mapping activity of the flow of information in an ecosystem is considered as the modelling of information flow. A number of models for assessing the flow of information are suggested and the field of ecosystem modelling for information flow is growing on in different horizons including its precision and other crucial factors.

Ecological pyramids

The ecological pyramid represents trophic structure and function of an ecosystem. The pyramid may be for Numbers, Biomass, Energy and Productivity. The hierarchical level is the outcome of consequences of the entire role played by individuals.
Due to the high production found at lower of trophic levels, consequently the "upright" pyramid is usually obtained for biomass, energy, and numbers except the Forest pyramid for Numbers and Aquatic system pyramids for Biomass. The inverted pyramid in tree reveals (a single tree→numerous birds→uncountable parasites) the increasing numbers individuals with successive trophic levels.
However, generally the numbers of individuals decrease with successive trophic levels e.g. pyramids of grassland and aquatic ecosystem. Likewise, the biomass of individuals is also decrease with successive trophic levels (except aquatic ecosystem) e.g. pyramids of biomass for forest and grassland ecosystems. Owing to the unidirectional flow of energy in successive trophic levels all the pyramids of energy and all the pyramids of productivity are always upright.

Ecosystem perturbation

Ecosystem is a dynamic system and it need to be assisted or ordered toward productivity and promotion for the welfare of humans and society. The numerous causes like overpopulation, over-exploitation of natural resources, overgrazing of grassland, monoculture plantation, introduction of new chemicals, air & water pollution and mismanagements are available to deteriorate the environment and ecosystem to an alarming situation (Shankhwar and Srivastava, 2015). The ecosystem perturbations like storms, eat-waves, droughts floods, melting glaciers, bleaching of coral reef and forest fires are affect the life of humans, plants and animal drastically. The perturbation may be quick assaulted and it may be chronic too like wastes generation, environmental un-hygiene, nuisance pollutants etc. consequently responsible for diseases and disruptions.

Ecosystem perturbations- grazing and browsing: The animals that garner foliage, fruits, soft bark, green stems and twigs from plants and does not depend on eating the grasses and eat the higher height growing vegetation are called browsers.
The examples of browsing animals are as follows: Goats, wild Goat, Deer, Markhor, Sulaiman Markhor, West Caucasian Tur, Alpine - , Iberian - , Nubian - , Siberian - and Walia - ibex. While the animal who pieces the grasses and other vegetation like dicots and herbaceous woody plants near or at ground levelare called grazers. The examples of grazing animals are as follows: Horses, Sheep, Bison, Geese, Giant Panda, Hippopotamus, Cattle, Rabbits, Grasshopper and Green Sea Turtle.
The grazing and browsing animals are the subcategories of herbivory animal. The food resource partitioning in the way of segregation the food harnessing habits of herbivory animals enables them to co-exist into same region and share the food resource without competition. It is a mechanism against the competition for food and ultimately it favours and allows grazing and browsing species to harness the green vegetation without inter�species competition. Thus, it is important to understand the grazing and browsing animals and their food regimes. Finally, the particularly the competition for food in this region is intraspecific competition among the herbivory animals.
The browsers are taking up the advantages of the geographical landscape which is not suitable to grazing animals. In the Mountainous Rocky landscape, during the snow fall the area covered of snow and the ground-level green vegetation & other grasses, are become inaccessible to grazing animals, a browser such as the white-tailed deer may take the advantage of being browser for harnessing the green foliage at a height. The grazers are taking up the advantage of the geographical landscape i.e. not suitable to browsing animals, such as the height of vegetation may be inaccessible to browsing animals.
The high height of vegetation may be suitable only to the selective browsing animals that have a long neck like giraffe. Moreover, many times the browsers depend on the portions of the vegetation with low in nutrients and/or chemically less active substances. While the grazer can feed on the meristematic region of grasses, when face the inaccessibility of grasses.
The traditional tropical forest is the best utilized habitat that is a house for diverse trees including herb, shrubs, tree lianas, climbers and epiphytes. Due to high diversity, the tropical forest contributes differently to human beings and society.
The diversity among living beings and organisms in habitats form stronger and more stable ecosystem. The most diverse ecosystem means more stable and with higher buffering capacity. But due to the extreme events of pollution in wide array of impacts has affected all the system. The tropical forest is also experiencing the problems exerted through the pollution and face the deterioration and degradation of forest. The mass degradation and deforestation of tropical forest has resulted to reduce the forest to half of the forest at the time after nineteenth century.
The deforestation and declined forest are the cascade effect of different mismanagement and over-exploiting events. Therefore, it is difficult to blame to a single reason for the declined forest in tropical region. The changes observed in the diversity of forest tree and animal community are studied in term of biological diversity. The reduction in biodiversity is one of the outcomes of manmade activities on ecological activities. However, it is only a small segment of anthropogenic activities and manmade activities have more potential impacts on nature and ecosystems.

Fire and burning

While the study of an ecosystem, the study of fire as a natural and/or manmade factor that determines the shape of an ecosystem. Fire is crucial component that influence both animal and plant community and their interactions with the physical environment. The forest fire is often devastating and hazards but it may also be a beneficial event for ecological development, if it is a controlled fire. For example, the most significant role of fire is to breaking up the seed dormancy which is an essential for regeneration of forest. 
The fire in the forest called as forest fire may different source of origin. The regular controlled fires are being done in forest as a tool to prevent the spreading up of the forest fire. The controlled fire enables the germination of new propagules in forest by burning out the leaves litters which is a major hindrance of the seeds to contact with the ground soil and moisture. Moreover, the controlled forest fire is the process of fast mineralization which enables availability of phosphorus and micronutrients and escape out the load of carbonaceous substances. It is also the cheap method of dispose-off the agricultural waste on the agricultural on-site. In one hand it burns the litter which results the organic humus and another hand it may be beneficial as a source of phosphorus and micronutrients due to the addition of ash content and charcoal. Ash content enriches the soil micronutrients; however, the charcoal shoots out the extreme pH and ultimately enhances the microbial activity of soil. The charcoal acts as natural chelators that helpful to adhering the micro�nutrients. It may improve the soil condition, which favors the growth and development of soil microbiota. The controlled way of a fire operates as land management practices to enhance the biodiversity in forest by eradicating the non-native, invasive species and weeds for the promotion of timber.
The above-mentioned facts are associated with the advantages of forest fire. But still it is a Universal truth that forest fire engulfs a huge forest year by year. The devastating forest fire may continue till several months and spreads out many miles once started to burn and cause loss uncountable amount of money. The forest outbreak changes the ecosystem dynamics by changing the land use pattern along with other disturbance like insect infestation and disease etc. The changes in species composition of forest also triggered the succession and may induce early maturity or climax of forest.


As we know, the natural feedback mechanism regulates the populations of different community in an ecosystem and enables them to continue the different functions of ecosystem. But gradually through the population explosion, the human beings have disrupted the different mechanism of homeostasis on earth. For the satisfying the need of this population requires mass scale production of various goods and articles in interest of human population. Ultimately, a new era of industrialization has emerged out in large part of the earth surrounding the human society. The Industry and manufacturing have led to generated associated waste year by year. Some of wastes are biodegradable and recycled back the nutrient to the earth. But numerous of waste are non-biodegradable, recalcitrant in nature are started to pile up on earth here and there. Finally, these non-biodegradable wastes are gradually bio-accumulating in solid & liquid phase and exert pressure to disrupt the natural state of homeostasis on earth. Likewise, the urbanization is also exhibiting to settle the human population and alter the land use pattern. For example, the forests are cleared out to grow the agricultural commodities and agricultural land converted to residential colonies to settle out the growing human populations. Thus, the changes in land use pattern are owing to human demand year by year. Further, the residential colonies continue discharge the effluent that disintegrate, disrupt and damage the vegetation at a large scale. Moreover, this discriminate discharge ultimately joins and vanishes out the water body due to activity of different pollutants present in discharged effluents. As the effect of pollutants on human, biodiversity and property are gradual and chronic but it is long-lasting and irreversible. Several death causing diseases, extinction loss of biodiversity and Stone leprosy to historical monuments are the prominent examples of pollution.
Furthermore, the industrialization and urbanization activities harness the natural resources available and trigger the imbalance in presence of natural resources.

Over-exploitation of natural resource

The resources like forests, minerals, waters etc. are given by the nature traditionally are called natural resource. The natural resources are optimum to supply the nutrients and water when they are use in judiciously and sustainably. In general, the sustainable use of natural resource means the use of the natural resource at present without compromising the future generation to use the same. The sustainable use of natural resource has the virtue to use it long lasting in sufficiency. However, the overuse of the natural resources decreases and depletes the natural resources drastically. The over-exploitation means the exploiting the species without ensuring its supply in constant rate for future and ultimately cause the extinction of the species. The animal poaching for their body parts results the extinction of animal globally e.g. the killing or hunting of elephant for its ivory tusks; the killing of lions for its hide etc. The mining activity of coal supplies it for power generation.
The over-exploiting of coal consequently led to extensive mining that destroy the forest ecosystems. The over-exploitation of natural resources always leads to destructions of nature and natural resources.

Habitat fragmentation and destruction

The habitat is essential part of living beings and the inhabitants living in are in accordance with that habitat conditions. Although, most of the factors associated are indirect and complex to interlink. Still the impacts of climate change are the well understood in reference to habitat fragmentation. The global warming and climate change widely responsible for habitat destruction and fragmentation by the melting glaciers and frequent flood events. The habitat fragmentation and destruction are consequently leading towards the devastating impacts on glaciers, forest, grasslands and other landscapes.
If in response to changing climatic condition converting the hilly terrain to xeric climate the sensitive tree species like Oak will be replaced by adaptive tree species of Chir-pine. The further retrospect of this event will eventually promote the xeric condition as the chir-pine have fire resistance and most suitability in xeric hill conditions. The extinction of water conserving Oak species, which was responsible to conserve the water will dry up the hill station and will spread the new recruits of chir-pine mono-culture. Thus, the habitat destruction damages the tree biodiversity and tree extinction also will destruct the habitat (Shankhwar et al., 2020).

Deforestation and fragmentation

The land use pattern is a pattern to use the land resources. The anthropogenic activities are the direct input to change and/or design the land use pattern. The change in land use pattern led to deforestation and fragmentation. The various activities like agriculture, human settlement and construction of roads, factory etc. are supporting to the human habitat and habitation profuse huge pressure to clear the forest. Tree based ecosystem play crucial role in carbon sequestration (Bijalwan et al., 2017) and retaining tree based land use. Hence, the clearance of forest declines the plant and animal community drastically. The change in land use pattern from forest ecosystem to agricultural system led to reduce the diverse plant community to monoculture. The ultimate effect of change in land use pattern lead to deforestation, fragmentation and reduction of biodiversity result the fragile ecosystem instead of stable ecosystem. The fragmentations of forest are mainly due to the activity of construction of new road, dam, mining activity etc. The fragmentation of the forest area drastically reduces the biodiversity by changing the property of microhabitat. The fragmentation of forest split out the forests into small patches of forest. The larger forest is extensively attributed to the more diverse forest and as smaller forest area will lead to the less divers’ forest. The species richness prevails in larger and diverse forest. The fragmentation of forest deteriorates and deforests the forest due to edge effect of forest segments.

Invasive species

The interactions of biotic community are the main determining factors to existing the biotic community in the prevailing ecosystem. The biotic community compete for various resources like food, shelter, moisture and light etc. The biotic community are either Eury or steno - in nature which help to tolerate the competition in adverse climatic condition. As the outcome of competition in adverse situation, the steno species will diminish out and the only the Eury species will proliferate. The Eury species has the capacity to survive in wider ranges and trigger the extinction of the steno species which can survive in a small microhabitat. The invasive species are the Eury species that can move to new place and may survive there too due to its Eury nature. The invasive species have some extra characteristics that help it to survive in wider range environmental variables e.g., the seeds of Parthenium are so tiny and may disperse easily to the wider area. Moreover, the short lifespan of Parthenium help to produce its seeds in short duration of time and boost its dispersion largely. Thus, the Eury species spreading to new spaces and diminish out the native steno species is the devastating activity of Eury species and act as a danger for mass extinction of steno species. The mass extinction of native steno species will deteriorate the micro-habitat due to extinction and disruption of the biotic species in ecosystems. As the biotic component disappears due to extinction it also affects the abiotic factors of ecosystem.

Climate change

The climate is the condition of a region characterized by rainfall, temperature etc. The anthropogenic activity influences the environment at an extent that it also alters the climatic condition. The noted activities that change the environment globally are greenhouse gas emission through the anthropogenic activity (Shankhwar et al., 2012).
The greenhouse gas namely H2O, CO2, CH4, NO2, O3, CFC & SF6 are directly responsible for global warming through greenhouse effect. The global warming induced climate change is one of the most devastating consequences of anthropogenic activity. The climate change influences the human beings, plant & animals and ecosystem tremendously. It is globally addressed problem generated by the cascade effects of anthropogenic inputs. The global warming consequently increases the temperature on earth which has the destructive impacts on glacier and promotes the melting of polar icecaps.
One side it shrinks the glacier and other hand the melting glacier affect the coastal area with the disparaging motion of flood. Summarily, it destructs the habitat of polar bear and damages the human settlements in coastlines and port lands. The climate change activities alter the climatic conditions that regulate the agricultural production. Thus, the climate change reduces the production of agricultural commodities and staple food. The micro biota is ultra-sensitive towards the temperature and pH; hence the climate change affects the living micro biota in soil. The microbial change may change the ecosystems and even the land use patterns. Thus, as we know that in ecosystem all the components are interlinked and closely associated. Therefore, the detrimental impacts may also lead to damage the nature the vanishing the ecosystems. The climate change first attack on the stenothermic plants and animals and indirectly support to the eurythermic plants and animals. The changing effect on biotic community is to promote the eurythermic plants and animals and withdraw stenothermic will ultimate create a homogeneous population. The reduction of biological diversity will lead to destruct a number of plants and animals.

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